NCERT Solutions Class 12

NCERT Solutions Class 12

Electrochemistry : NCERT Solutions – Class 12 Chemistry

3.1. Arrange the following metals in the order in which they displace each other from the solution of their salts.

Al, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn

Answer

The following is the order in which the given metals displace each other from the solution of their salts.

Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Cu

 

3.2. Given the standard electrode potentials,

K+/K = −2.93V, Ag+/Ag = 0.80V,

Hg2+/Hg = 0.79V

Mg2+/Mg = −2.37 V, Cr3+/Cr = − 0.74V

Arrange these metals in their increasing order of reducing power.

Answer

The lower the reduction potential, the higher is the reducing power. The given standard electrode potentials increase in the order of K+/K < Mg2+/Mg < Cr3+/Cr < Hg2+/Hg < Ag+/Ag.

Hence, the reducing power of the given metals increases in the following order:

Ag < Hg < Cr < Mg < K

 

3.3. Depict the galvanic cell in which the reaction Zn(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) takes place. Further show:

(i) Which of the electrode is negatively charged?

(ii) The carriers of the current in the cell.

(iii) Individual reaction at each electrode.

Answer

The galvanic cell in which the given reaction takes place is depicted as:

(i) Zn electrode (anode) is negatively charged.

(ii) Ions are carriers of current in the cell and in the external circuit, current will flow from silver to zinc.

(iii) The reaction taking place at the anode is given by,

The reaction taking place at the cathode is given by,

 

3.4. Calculate the standard cell potentials of galvanic cells in which the following reactions take place:

(i) 2Cr(s) + 3Cd2+(aq) → 2Cr3+(aq) + 3Cd

(ii) Fe2+(aq) + Ag+(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + Ag(s)

Calculate the ΔrGθ and equilibrium constant of the reactions.

Answer

(i) 

The galvanic cell of the given reaction is depicted as:

Now, the standard cell potential is

In the given equation,

n = 6

F = 96487 C mol−1

 = +0.34 V

Then,  = −6 × 96487 C mol−1 × 0.34 V

= −196833.48 CV mol−1

= −196833.48 J mol−1

= −196.83 kJ mol−1

Again,

 = −RT ln K

= 34.496

 K = antilog (34.496)

= 3.13 × 1034

(ii) 

The galvanic cell of the given reaction is depicted as:

Now, the standard cell potential is

Here, n = 1.

Then, 

= −1 × 96487 C mol−1 × 0.03 V

= −2894.61 J mol−1

= −2.89 kJ mol−1

Again, 

= 0.5073

K = antilog (0.5073)

= 3.2 (approximately)

 

3.5. Write the Nernst equation and emf of the following cells at 298 K:

(i) Mg(s) | Mg2+(0.001M) || Cu2+(0.0001 M) | Cu(s)

(ii) Fe(s) | Fe2+(0.001M) || H+(1M)|H2(g)(1bar) | Pt(s)

(iii) Sn(s) | Sn2+(0.050 M) || H+(0.020 M) | H2(g) (1 bar) | Pt(s)

(iv) Pt(s) | Br2(l) | Br(0.010 M) || H+(0.030 M) | H2(g) (1 bar) | Pt(s).

Answer

(i) For the given reaction, the Nernst equation can be given as:

= 2.7 − 0.02955

= 2.67 V (approximately)

(ii) For the given reaction, the Nernst equation can be given as:

= 0.52865 V

= 0.53 V (approximately)

(iii) For the given reaction, the Nernst equation can be given as:

= 0.14 − 0.0295 × log125

= 0.14 − 0.062

= 0.078 V

= 0.08 V (approximately)

(iv) For the given reaction, the Nernst equation can be given as:

 

3.6. In the button cells widely used in watches and other devices the following reaction takes place:

Zn(s) + Ag2O(s) + H2O(l) → Zn2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) + 2OH(aq)

Determine and  for the reaction.

Answer

= 1.104 V

We know that,

= −2 × 96487 × 1.04

= −213043.296 J

= −213.04 kJ

 

3.7. Define conductivity and molar conductivity for the solution of an electrolyte. Discuss their variation with concentration.

Answer

Conductivity of a solution is defined as the conductance of a solution of 1 cm in length and area of cross-section 1 sq. cm. The inverse of resistivity is called conductivity or specific conductance. It is represented by the symbolκ. If ρ is resistivity, then we can write:

The conductivity of a solution at any given concentration is the conductance (G) of one unit volume of solution kept between two platinum electrodes with the unit area of cross-section and at a distance of unit length.

i.e., 

(Since a = 1, l = 1)

Conductivity always decreases with a decrease in concentration, both for weak and strong electrolytes. This is because the number of ions per unit volume that carry the current in a solution decreases with a decrease in concentration.

Molar conductivity:

Molar conductivity of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of volume V of a solution containing 1 mole of the electrolyte kept between two electrodes with the area of cross-section A and distance of unit length.

Now, l = 1 and A = V (volume containing 1 mole of the electrolyte).

Molar conductivity increases with a decrease in concentration. This is because the total volume V of the solution containing one mole of the electrolyte increases on dilution.

The variation of withfor strong and weak electrolytes is shown in the following plot:

 

3.8.The conductivity of 0.20 M solution of KCl at 298 K is 0.0248 Scm−1. Calculate its molar conductivity.

Answer

Given,

κ = 0.0248 S cm−1

c = 0.20 M

 Molar conductivity, 

= 124 Scm2mol−1

 

3.9. The resistance of a conductivity cell containing 0.001M KCl solution at 298 K is 1500 Ω. What is the cell constant if conductivity of 0.001M KCl solution at 298 K is 0.146 × 10−3 S cm−1.

Answer

Given,

Conductivity, κ = 0.146 × 10−3 S cm−1

Resistance, R = 1500 Ω

 Cell constant = κ × R

= 0.146 × 10−3 × 1500

= 0.219 cm−1

 

3.10. The conductivity of sodium chloride at 298 K has been determined at different concentrations and the results are given below:

Concentration/M 0.001 0.010 0.020 0.050 0.100

102 × κ/S m−1 1.237 11.85 23.15 55.53 106.74

Calculate for all concentrations and draw a plot between and c½. Find the value of.

Answer

Given,

κ = 1.237 × 10−2 S m−1, c = 0.001 M

Then, κ = 1.237 × 10−4 S cm−1, c½ = 0.0316 M1/2

= 123.7 S cm2 mol−1

Given,

κ = 11.85 × 10−2 S m−1, c = 0.010M

Then, κ = 11.85 × 10−4 S cm−1, c½ = 0.1 M1/2

= 118.5 S cm2 mol−1

Given,

κ = 23.15 × 10−2 S m−1, c = 0.020 M

Then, κ = 23.15 × 10−4 S cm−1, c1/2 = 0.1414 M1/2

= 115.8 S cm2 mol−1

Given,

κ = 55.53 × 10−2 S m−1, c = 0.050 M

Then, κ = 55.53 × 10−4 S cm−1, c1/2 = 0.2236 M1/2

= 111.1 1 S cm2 mol−1

Given,

κ = 106.74 × 10−2 S m−1, c = 0.100 M

Then, κ = 106.74 × 10−4 S cm−1, c1/2 = 0.3162 M1/2

= 106.74 S cm2 mol−1

Now, we have the following data:

0.0316

0.1

0.1414

0.2236

0.3162

123.7

118.5

115.8

111.1

106.74

Since the line interruptsat 124.0 S cm2 mol−1= 124.0 S cm2 mol−1.

 

3.11. Conductivity of 0.00241 M acetic acid is 7.896 × 10−5 S cm−1. Calculate its molar conductivity and if for acetic acid is 390.5 S cm2 mol−1, what is its dissociation constant?

Answer

Given, κ = 7.896 × 10−5 S m−1

c = 0.00241 mol L−1

Then, molar conductivity, 

= 32.76S cm2 mol−1

Again,  = 390.5 S cm2 mol−1

Now, 

= 0.084

Dissociation constant, 

= 1.86 × 10−5 mol L−1

 

3.12. How much charge is required for the following reductions:

(i) 1 mol of Al3+ to Al.

(ii) 1 mol of Cu2+ to Cu.

(iii) 1 mol of  to Mn2+.

Answer

(i) 

 Required charge = 3 F

= 3 × 96487 C

= 289461 C

(ii) 

Required charge = 2 F

= 2 × 96487 C

= 192974 C

(iii) 

i.e.,

 Required charge = 5 F

= 5 × 96487 C

= 482435 C

 

3.13. How much electricity in terms of Faraday is required to produce

(i) 20.0 g of Ca from molten CaCl2.

(ii) 40.0 g of Al from molten Al2O3.

Answer

(i) According to the question,

Electricity required to produce 40 g of calcium = 2 F

Therefore, electricity required to produce 20 g of calcium

= 1 F

(ii) According to the question,

Electricity required to produce 27 g of Al = 3 F

Therefore, electricity required to produce 40 g of Al 

= 4.44 F

 

3.14. How much electricity is required in coulomb for the oxidation of

(i) 1 mol of H2O to O2.

(ii) 1 mol of FeO to Fe2O3.

Answer

(i) According to the question,

Now, we can write:

Electricity required for the oxidation of 1 mol of H2O to O2 = 2 F

= 2 × 96487 C

= 192974 C

(ii) According to the question,

Electricity required for the oxidation of 1 mol of FeO to Fe2O3 = 1 F

= 96487 C

 

3.15. A solution of Ni(NO3)2 is electrolysed between platinum electrodes using a current of 5 amperes for 20 minutes. What mass of Ni is deposited at the cathode?

Answer

Given,

Current = 5A

Time = 20 × 60 = 1200 s

Charge = current × time

= 5 × 1200

= 6000 C

According to the reaction,

Nickel deposited by 2 × 96487 C = 58.71 g

Therefore, nickel deposited by 6000 C 

= 1.825 g

Hence, 1.825 g of nickel will be deposited at the cathode.

 

3.16. Three electrolytic cells A,B,C containing solutions of ZnSO4, AgNO3 and CuSO4, respectively are connected in series. A steady current of 1.5 amperes was passed through them until 1.45 g of silver deposited at the cathode of cell B. How long did the current flow? What mass of copper and zinc were deposited?

Answer

According to the reaction:

i.e., 108 g of Ag is deposited by 96487 C.

Therefore, 1.45 g of Ag is deposited by =

= 1295.43 C

Given,

Current = 1.5 A

Time 

= 863.6 s

= 864 s

= 14.40 min

Again,

i.e., 2 × 96487 C of charge deposit = 63.5 g of Cu

Therefore, 1295.43 C of charge will deposit 

= 0.426 g of Cu

i.e., 2 × 96487 C of charge deposit = 65.4 g of Zn

Therefore, 1295.43 C of charge will deposit 

= 0.439 g of Zn

 

3.17. Using the standard electrode potentials given in Table 3.1, predict if the reaction between the following is feasible:

(i) Fe3+(aq) and I(aq)

(ii) Ag+ (aq) and Cu(s)

(iii) Fe3+ (aq) and Br− (aq)

(iv) Ag(s) and Fe3+ (aq)

(v) Br(aq) and Fe2+ (aq).

Answer

Sincefor the overall reaction is positive, the reaction between Fe3+(aq) and I(aq) is feasible.

Since  for the overall reaction is positive, the reaction between Ag+ (aq) and Cu(s) is feasible.

Since for the overall reaction is negative, the reaction between Fe3+(aq) and Br(aq) is not feasible.

Since E for the overall reaction is negative, the reaction between Ag (s) and Fe3+(aq) is not feasible.

Since for the overall reaction is positive, the reaction between Br2(aq) and Fe2+(aq) is feasible.

 

3.18. Predict the products of electrolysis in each of the following:

(i) An aqueous solution of AgNO3 with silver electrodes.

(ii) An aqueous solution of AgNO3with platinum electrodes.

(iii) A dilute solution of H2SO4with platinum electrodes.

(iv) An aqueous solution of CuCl2 with platinum electrodes.

Answer

(i) At cathode:

The following reduction reactions compete to take place at the cathode.

The reaction with a higher value of  takes place at the cathode. Therefore, deposition of silver will take place at the cathode.

At anode:

The Ag anode is attacked by ions. Therefore, the silver electrode at the anode dissolves in the solution to form Ag+.

(ii) At cathode:

The following reduction reactions compete to take place at the cathode.

The reaction with a higher value of  takes place at the cathode. Therefore, deposition of silver will take place at the cathode.

At anode:

Since Pt electrodes are inert, the anode is not attacked by  ions. Therefore, OH or  ions can be oxidized at the anode. But OH ions having a lower discharge potential and get preference and decompose to liberate O2.

(iii) At the cathode, the following reduction reaction occurs to produce H2 gas.

At the anode, the following processes are possible.

For dilute sulphuric acid, reaction (i) is preferred to produce O2 gas. But for concentrated sulphuric acid, reaction (ii) occurs.

(iv) At cathode:

The following reduction reactions compete to take place at the cathode.

The reaction with a higher value of  takes place at the cathode. Therefore, deposition of copper will take place at the cathode.

At anode:
The following oxidation reactions are possible at the anode.

At the anode, the reaction with a lower value of  is preferred. But due to the over-potential of oxygen, Cl gets oxidized at the anode to produce Cl2 gas

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