NEET-Biotechnology-Principles and Processes


  • Concept of classical and modern biotechnology
  • Basic steps in recombinant DNA technology.
  • Role of restriction enzymes in recombinant DNA technology.
  • Characteristics and types of cloning vectors
  • Process of isolation of DNA.
  • Process of cutting of DNA at specific locations.
  • Principle and process involved in amplification of  desired DNA fragment by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • Methods of transformation of a competent host 
  • Selection of transformed cells.
  • Process involved in obtaining the foreign gene product.
  • Types of bioreactors for large scale production of recombinant proteins.
  • The methods involved in downstream processing to obtain finished product


Biotechnologyis a word that is commonly discussed in scientific circles and media. The word was first used as far back as 1917 by Károly Ereky, a Hungarian engineer. He is also called as the Father of Biotechnology by some people. Biotechnology is referred to the large-scale production of substances synthesized by bacteria grown in vats at that time. It mainly involves Genetic engineering, gene manipulation and r-DNA technology.
As long as 10,000 years ago, humans selected plants and animals with specific traits to propagate from the wild. By selecting certain traits of each plant, hybrid (off -spring produced by crossing two genetically dissimilar varieties of a species) organisms that are quite different from one another but with desired characteristics were developed. The techniques used in selection, hybridization and mutation formed the basis of biotechnology. Since the roots of the biological manipulation of organisms date back to 10,000 years or so, these old technologies are referred to as classical biotechnology. However, due to limitation of knowledge during such breeding programs, often undesirable genes were also incorporated along with the desirable ones.
The process of fermentation was being used for thousands of years, without understanding its actual details. For more than 8000 years, bacteria and yeasts have been used to produce products such as beer, vinegar, curd, bread and cheese, although the processes involved were not understood at the time. In 1837–1838, researchers concluded that yeasts are alive. Almost 30 years later, Louis Pasteur confirmed that certain bacteria and yeasts  formed molecules such as acetic acid, lactic acid, butyric acid, alcohol and carbon dioxide. Further research evolved a process that could be used to kill microorganisms that led to production of undesirable substances. This process was known as pasteurization. It is now widely used to preserve wine and other foods such as milk

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